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PROBLEMS OF MODERN EDUCATION

№ 5-2016

CONTENTS

 

 

 

 Philosophic Sciences 09.00.00
From the History of Philosophic Thought     
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PRIORI AND POSTERIORI IN COGNITION: BACKGROUND AND MODERN APPROACH

 Yashin Boris L.


Abstract. The article focuses on the problem of understanding a priori (pre-experimental) and a posteriori (empirical) knowledge, their relations and their role in the cognitive process, this problem has deep roots in the philosophy of knowledge: the opposite approaches to understanding the nature of knowledge are found in the philosophy of Ancient Greece (Plato and Aristotle) and continue their existence in modern philosophy (rationalism of R. Descartes and G. Leibniz and the empiricism of F. Bacon, T. Hobbes and J. Locke). The author points out the role of Kant in solving this problem, whose realization of the a priori as synthetic a priori together with the proposed “set” of so-called “a priori forms” of sensuality and reason further established in the philosophy of knowledge. It is shown that neokantian Marburg school (Cohen, Natorp, Cassirer, etc.), who shared the idea of Kant that “experience is given in mathematics and pure natural science” and had a particular influence on Husserl in his formulation of the concept of postural aprioristic-tion in his phenomenology. Special attention is paid to rendering of the a priori in the works of V. Y. Perminov, who linked the original idea in mathematics with the necessary activity (practical) orient-doing thinking. The work reveals some weaknesses of the a priori in mathematical knowledge (choice of only two of all the a priori forms of sensuality and reason by Kant for Mathematics; the limitation of the mathematical knowledge by arithmetic and Euclidean geometry; etc.). It is stated that they contributed to the emergence of “neoempiricism” in the philosophy of mathematics which to a certain extent is similar to the “moderate empiricism” – a version of empiricism that exists in contemporary epistemology along with another version – the “extreme” or “radical” empiricism and the same versions of apriorism. In this regard, there expressed an assumption that “hard” opposition of the a priori and the empirical in philosophy and science (in logic and mathematics, in particular) are unlikely to correspond with the actual ratio in real knowledge. Many fundamental scientific concepts (those of Mathematics and logics, in particular) that may seem nonexperimental, purely a priori, in fact arise as perception and are formed as concepts in the process of practical activities, in the process of socialization. This idea is confirmed by the work of proponents of the concept of physiological and neurophysiological interpretation of Mathematics, research in the field of cognitive Psychology, Ethno-mathematics and sociocultural Philosophy of Mathematics.

Keywords: apriorism, priori, posteriori, mathematics, neokantians, empiricism, epistemology.

P. 9-24

 

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THE PHILOSOPHICAL PROJECT OF MONTESQUIEU’S “FREE STATE” AND ITS CRITICISM BY HIS CONTEMPORARIES

Milovanov Konstantin Yu.


Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the philosophical project of a “free state” created by Ch. L. M ontesquieu. Philosophical and legal problems of development of the powers division theory and the rule-of-law state in the Age of Enlightenment are considered. The views of the French philosophers of the Enlightenment – the critics of the philosophical doctrine by Montesquieu’s – are analyzed.

Keywords: the Age of Enlightenment, Montesquieu, rule-of-law state, the powers division theory, governmental power.
P. 25-38

 

 Psychological Sciences 19.00.00
Educational Psychology
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THE PROBLEM OF SOCIAL ORDER AND VIOLENCE IN SCHOOLS

Arpentievа Mariyam R.

Abstract. The article is devoted to problems related to school violence as a consequence of the desire to streamline the development and behavior of pupils and teachers, to keep them within the norms of the existing system of education. The desire for order, as the desire for control (over oneself and the world), initiates “the Lucifer effect” – a wish to liken others to oneself or to assimilate everything that is not like and/or does not comply with one’s perception. It is the opposite of the relationships of love and allegiance: in the allegiance a person perceives oneself as part of the circle of love in which each individual is valuable in him/herself, and also in relations with others. As a result, the education becomes forcible and destructive both for pupils and teachers. Nonviolent and developing education allows the child and the teacher to evolve at their own pace and in their own direction being guided by the moral standards and the attention to the inner world and inner, natural order, as well as the outer world with its, to some degree, artificial order.

Keywords: bullying, harassment, stalking, social order, self-orgaization, violence.

P. 39-49

 

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INTERRELATION OF ASSERTIVENESS AND MORAL GROUNDS OF THE STUDENTS’ CONDUCT

Abdumadjidova Dildora R.

Abstract. Assertiveness means confident behavior, ability to effectively stand for oneself in  interpersonal relationship, protecting one’s rights and respecting the rights of others.  Assertiveness is an ability of an individual to protect one’s rights confidently and with dignity, without violating other people’s rights.

Keywords: assertiveness, expressiveness, congruence, aggressive behavior, confident behavior, insecure behavior, stereotypes, initiative, negative emotions, social anxiety, social competence.

P. 50-56

 

Psychological Anthropology
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MUSIAL CREATIVITY FOR PEACE: JOINT MUSICAL IMPROVISATION AS A MEANS OF SELF-UNDERSTANDING AND DEVELOPING OF RESEARCH  PERSONAL QUALITIES

Ovchinnikova Julia S.

Abstract. The article focuses on the problem of perception of music in conditions of modern city space and on special aspects of its sound and musical influence on a person. The author
discovers connections between musical creativity and the problem of development of research activity of students; also brings to light onto the developing potential of traditional music of peoples of the world in psychological and pedagogical practice. The authors’ methodology for joint musical improvisation of ethnic musical instruments for development of self-understanding, reflection and personal research qualities is presented.

Keywords: Musical Creativity for Peace, selfunderstanding, traditional music of peoples of the world, traditional music instruments of peoples of the world, developing of personal research qualities, developmental education.

P. 57-71

 

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SONG AS AN AUTODIDACTIC MEANS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE PREREQUISITES OF LITERACY IN CHILDREN IN THE PARTIAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM “FUN DAY FOR PRESCHOOLERS” (“Vededo ”)

Korenblit Stanislav S., Arushanova Alla G., Rychagova Elena S.

Abstract. The article presents the forms of organization of the learning process in a preschool educational institution: the frontal lesson, the teaching game, the autodidactic materials selected by A. P. Usova. Their capacities to develop literacy prerequisite in children, the role of a song as a means of Partial autodidactics in the educational program “Fun day for preschoolers” are emphasized. The article analyzes the features of the song as a synthetic form of art. Numerous data on the positive impact of music on speech activity; the relationship between musical, emotional, and verbal-logical intelligence, voluntary and involuntary mental activity, conscious and unconscious processes, mechanisms of left - and right-hemisphere strategy of the brain are summarized. The paper explains the role of a song in the formation of sound analytical and synthetic activity as a prerequisite for literacy.

Keywords: linguistic persona, emotional intelligence, language games, literacy background, forms of educational process organization, song, Partial educational program “Fun day for preschooler”.

P. 72-79

 

 Pedagogical Sciences 13.00.00
Modernization of Education       
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ESSENTIAL TASKS OF THE CONTINUING EDUCATION IN THE 21st CENTURY

Jumayev Erkin E., Aytuvganov Ural H.

Abstract. The article covers philosophical and cultural aspects of the system of continuing education in Uzbekistan.

Keywords: information, knowledge, society, continuing education, activity, problem.
P. 80-84

 

History of Pedagogy and Education
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FEATURES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION AMM OUNT IN THE MOSCOW RUSSIA IN THE 16TH CENTURY

Belenchuk Larisa N.

Abstract. The article is devoted to the ideas of education in the Moscow State of the 16th century and their place in the Pan-European setting up of the New Enlightenment. Methodologically it is based on the civilization method that takes the independence and spiritual difference in the development of cultures, diversity and multicentrism of the world of culture as a basis. The article is an attempt to move away from the describing education and pedagogical views in Russia as a result of the economic-materialistic development. The particular attention is paid to the Old Russian book-learning and codes dated back to the times of Ivan the Terrible. Common and different features in the development of the Russian and Western European education at the end of the Middle Ages are also emphasized.

Keywords: history of Pedagogy, education, Russian pedagogy, Russian school, morality and
science, Christian anthropology, middle ages.

P. 85-96

 

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE AXIOLOGICAL BASIS OF THE RUSSIAN EDUCATION IN THE PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE OF V.YA. STOYUNIN (to the 190th birth anniversary)

Boguslavsky Mikhail V.

Abstract. The article covers the life and axiological basis of the pedagogical practice of V. Y a. Stoyunin – an outstanding Russian educator, scientist and public figure – holistically.

Keywords: education in Russia, pedagogical science, history of Pedagogy and education, V. Y a. Stoyunin, axiology of education, sociopedagogical movement, the teaching ideal, the system of pedagogical education, theory and practice of women education.

P. 97-110

 

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THE INFLUENCE OF EDUCATION ON THE SECONDARY (REAL) SCHOOL LEAVERS’ PROFESSIONAL FORMATION IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

Streltsov Aleksey A.

Abstract. The article deals with the real secondary education in the Russian empire from the mid. XIXth to the early XXth century, its influence on the school leavers’ choices about their professional activities. 460 profiles are analyzed with this regard. A glimpse of the real schools reestablishment in Russia in the 1990s is given.

Keywords: Russia, history of education, real education, real school, school-leavers.

P. 111-118

 

New Research in Education
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IMPLEMENTATION OF FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARD AND PERCEPTION OF Yu . M . LOTMAN’S PHILOLOGICAL LEGACY

Lanin Boris A., Shamchikova Valentina M.

Abstract. This article is devoted to current issues of implementing of the Federal state educational standard. Yu. M . Lotman’s philological legacy influences modern status of teaching literature.

Keywords: Federal state educational standard, philological education, literature education, methods of teaching literature.

P. 119-126

 

Innovative Technologies in Education
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REALIZATION OF HISTORICAL MATERIALS IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING CHEMISTRY

Rajabov Hudayor M.

Abstract. This article shows that historical information relating to the development of chemistry as a science, has not only cognitive, but also profound educational value. For the teacher of chemistry historical materials are not only a source of new facts and illustrations, but also a powerful tool for pedagogical influence on students, so they excite interest in students and develop critical thinking. Historical material allows the students to study chemistry as a live stream of emerging and dying hypotheses and theories. The article gives recommendations to the chemistry Methodologists, teaching staff of higher education institutions and other establishments of the continuing education system. Results of the study can be used to improve the quality and effectiveness of teaching inorganic and organic chemistry in higher or other types of education.

Keywords: the principle of historicism, historical information, historical chronicles and personalvalue materials, extracurricular work, theme nights, weeks and decades of chemistry, chemical games, quizzes, club of the cheerful and resourceful.
P. 127-133

 

Young Scientists ’ Vision
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TEMPERAMENT AND PERSONALITY. RESEARCH ON TEMPERAMENT BY VISUAL PSYCHODIAGNOSTICS

Borisov Denis D.

Abstract. The article deals with issues related to the formation of human personality. Particular attention is paid to the role of temperament in the structure of the formation of personality. For this purpose, at the beginning of the work the most well-known theories of temperament are considered, and then the author’s view on the problem of temperament and personality relationship is given. The approaches to using the visual psychodiagnostics in the study of temperament and its practical significance in the primary determination of human temperament with the help of the proposed method are introduced.

Keywords: personality, temperament, sanguine, choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic, introverted, extroverted, visual psychodiagnostics, a human personality.

P. 134-141

 

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PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES TEACHERS

Rogatina Natalia A.

Abstract. Dramatic changes of the role of foreign languages in the modern society imposes new requirements upon foreign language teachers. Nowadays teachers should provide students not only with the rules of grammar and up-to-date vocabulary but also train them to communicate with native speakers, respect and understand their culture. Thus we are reaching a new level of teaching foreign languages. Integrative model of foreign language teachers is a complete image of a person who owns not only professional, but also general professional competence, skills and knowledge.

Keywords: globalization, methodology, professional competence, integrative model, a highly qualified teacher, general professional knowledge, foreign language education.

P. 142-148

 

Scientific Life
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PEDAGOGICAL METHODOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF MODERN SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

Osmolovskaya Irina M.

Abstract. The present paper covers the essence of the reports submitted for the International Scientific-Theoretical Conference “Pedagogical methodology in the context of modern scientific knowledge” dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of a Russian educator and scientist, Academician of the Russian Academy of Education, Volodar V. Kraevski.

Keywords: pedagogical science, pedagogical methodology, V. V . Kraevski, contents of education.
P. 149-158